The State of Jammu and Kashmir is created under the Treaty of Amritsar when Maharaja Gulab Singh bought the Kashmir Valley from the East India Company and adds it to Jammu and Ladakh already under his rule.
The Indian Rebellion of 1857 against the British/First Indian War of Independence. Kashmir did not join the rebellion against British rule.
In July, during Abdul Qadeer’s trial who was accused of inciting Kashmiris against the Dogras, the Dogra troops killed 22 Kashmiris. Protests start against Maharaja Hari Singh but they were suppressed.
Sheikh Muhammad Abdullah set up the ‘All Jammu and Kashmir Conference to fight for Kashmiri freedom from the Maharaja’s rule. The Glancy Commission published a report in 1932 which highlights the inequality of the Muslim population and discusses the need for adequate representation in state services. Maharaja accepts these recommendations but delays implementation.
Many small parties emerge against the Dogras. Worker-Peasant Party was by far the most popular. In addition to this, socialists and communist organisations also begun to grow.
In March, an internal revolt begins in the Poonch region but is suppressed by Maharaja’s forces. In August, after the partition, Kashmir signs the Standstill Agreement with Pakistan. The Maharaja delays the decision to accede either to India or Pakistan.
Thousand of people from Pakistan’s North Western Frontier Province (NWFP) attack Kashmir and Maharaja forces. The Maharaja ask India for help who abide, under the condition to help that he relinquishes control over defense, communications, and foreign affairs to India.
India takes the Kashmir issue to the UN Security Council. The resolution orders the cessation of hostilities and formulation of a peace agreement and a plebiscite to determine the future of Jammu and Kashmir.
India’s Home Minister declares that the State of Jammu and Kashmir is a fundamental part of India and there can be no question of a plebiscite.
Indo-Pakistan war of 1965. Much of it was fought by the countries land forces in Kashmir and along the border between India and Pakistan. The war saw the largest amassing of troops in Kashmir since the partition in 1947.
India and Pakistan fight again as Pakistan descends into civil war after East Pakistan demands autonomy and later independence of what will become Bangladesh.
India and Pakistan agree to a ceasefire and sign the Simla Agreement, which states that they will respect the Line of Control, the border between the two countries, and China. However, fighting continues along the line.
The accord of 1975 diluted the special status of Kashmir and transferred maximum powers to Dehli It demoted the Prime Minister to Chief Minister and allowed Sheikh Muhammad Abdullah to return to power in Jammu and Kashmir 22 years after his deposition and arrest.
After the 1987 elections, the Muslims United Front (MUF) declares the elections as rigged which leads to an insurgency in the valley. The MUF leader then breaks away to become the head of the militant group Hizb-ul-Mujahideen. This leads to further protests and demonstrations in the Kashmir valley.
The Kashmir Independence movement becomes more violent as Islamist ideology gathers steam and militancy increase in the valley.
Pakistan and India perform nuclear tests in a show of strength.
Pakistan and India clash in Kargil, India launches an airstrike in Kashmir. On October 12, 1999, General Musharraf leads a military coup in Pakistan.
India puts a ceasefire into effect in Kashmir. However violence continues.
Kashmiri assembly in Srinagar attacked and 38 people were killed.
Prime Minister Manmohan Singh and President General Pervez Musharraf meet in New York during UN General Assembly for the first round of peace talks.
Amnesty International and other human rights organisations report gross human rights violations from India that include systematic arrests and detentions, enforced curfews, and testimonies of rape and torture.
The beginning of the second uprising by local groups and youths which leads to massive redeployment of Indian security forces.
Tens of thousands of people stage street demonstrations against the deaths of two young men detained in Indian custody.
Chief Minister Omar Abdullah announces an amnesty for the 1,200 young men who threw stones at security forces during the anti-government protests in Kashmir Valley. Indian State Human Rights Commission confirms the presence of 2,000 unidentified bodies in unmarked graves near the Line of Control.
Indian forces kill three Pakistani soldiers in firing across the Line Of Control. India accuses Pakistan of opening fire first.
Prime Ministers of India and Pakistan meet and agree to try to reduce the number of violent incidents at their disputed border in Kashmir.
India cancel talks with Pakistan after accusing it of interfering in India’s internal affairs. This decision came after Pakistan’s High Commissioner in Dehli consulted Kashmiris separatist leaders in advance of the talks.
Pakistan ad India exchange strongly-worded warnings after a flare-up of violence across their common border leaves at least 18 people dead.
Muslim separatists leaders in Indian-administered Kashmir close shops, businesses, and government departments in protests at the enforcement of the colonial-era ban on beef-eating.
India’s ruling BJP party is sworn into government in Indian administered Kashmir for the first time in coalition with the local People’s Democratic Party, with the latter’s Mufti Mohammad Sayeed as chief minister.
Thousands defy curfew in Kashmir to attend the funeral of top commander Burhan Wani. Violent clashes take place after this.
One person dies in violent protest following a visit to Indian-administered Kashmir by Prime Minister Narendra Modi. Authorities impose an indefinite curfew in most parts of the Valley after killing top rebel commander Burhan Wani.
In September, India says that it has carried out surgical strikes against suspected militants along the de-facto border with Pakistan in Kashmir but Pakistan rejected it.
Violent clashes take place in Kashmir on the death anniversary of Burhan Wani.
Indian government strips Jammu and Kashmir state of the special status that gave its significantly autonomy.